The calls for equality made by those who are suffer from this universalism women, homosexuals, minorities are, when they are not accepted, labeled as communitarianist. Regarding male same-sex filiation, in Quebec it can only take place in the context of an adoption since, just as in France, surrogacy agreements are illegal.
Hérault, Aix-en-Provence, Presses universitaires de Provence, p. Le Gall, D. Gay couples sometimes choose surrogacy so that one of the men will have a biological connection with the child. They contend that having equal rights as the sole basis of the opening up of marriage to gays and lesbians will only serve to reinforce the conservatism of the institution of marriage Folgero, ; Lehr, ; Oswald et al.
Kwesi now has a regular girlfriend but they both agreed to wait after they complete their university program before having sexual intercourse. Bernstein, M. In same-sex families, since parents cannot have procreated their children together, intent is particularly significant. There would be on one hand biological origin: that which, represented by filiation, is the true measure of kinship and is supposed to give individuals their identity.